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Universal Theory

German Book Fair in Leipzig 14. - 17. March 2013
A K V Working Group of smaller Publishers in the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels

                    Final Theory of Spiral Fields - Spiral Field Model
  Theory of Everything, Grand Unified Theory, Grand Unification, Theorie für Alles, Große Vereinigung or an other name

Abstract:  This script contains theses for an universal »Spiral Field Theory« that are capable to dissolve problems in parallel from different areas which are far from each other. Starting point is the stuck principle discussion about the relationships between the Classic Physics and the Quantum Physics. Aim is the clarification of questions which remained open. In 1925 Max Planck had formulated as follows:  "The research of physics can not rest, so long not has been together-welded: on the one hand the mechanics and the electrodynamics with on the other hand the lesson of the stationary one and the radiating heat to a sole unitary theory."
The Spiral-Field-Model develops a supporting structure from General Field into which they will class the secure knowledge from experiments and well-proved theories. The most important thing of this new Final Theory is the detailed generating of all nature courses of phenomena exclusively from radiation and that in the direct meaning of the word. In the final effect the two great disciplines of the physics - which are drifted from each other - become bonded together to a super ordinate theoretical building of the nature sciences.
Planck's “quantum of action” h
(Planck constant h; Planck's “quantum of effect” h):  Jules Henri Poincaré welcomed the quantum of action as »quantum«. J. L. Destouches demanded to search for a counterpart of nature for that. Both did suppose exactly here the smallest indivisible element »atomos«; which was searched for from generations of innumerable philosophers and scientists since the antiquity. Thereto Werner Heisenberg: “This basis substance »energy« however is able to exist in various forms. It appears always in discreet quanta which we regard from all substances as the smallest indivisible elements; and one does not term it as atoms, but elementary particles because pure historical reasons." This idea could not be accomplished, however, because still needs the addition: »spiral rotation«. In the Spiral Field Model the »quantum of action« proves in fact as »1« of the Quantum Physics [Fig. 1] and as »smallest meaningful field unit« in a spiral rope of many of such rotations. Every »single rotation« (Mono-rotation, loop of quantum-skein or string, element of spin) is first a nature analogy and not only formally a constant of the physics. The represented curve piece is an idealization for a field section [Fig. 2]
Electro-magnetic
»single rays« or »mono-rays«:  The physics works empirically with beams(Ray bundles). My question about mono-rays kept unanswered. The current physics terms such possible phenomena »photons« (Light-corpuscles, light quanta, energy quanta, electromagnetic elementary particles, quasi-particles). Thereto again Heisenberg:  "Then there are those particles, which »always move with speed of light« and embody the radiation. Over details of the varied kinds of photons one does know only few basically. After Spiral Field Model are mono-rays: »skeins« (ropes, strings, threads) from »spiral rotating field«. I term the sinuous field-rope »quantum-skein«. Its »spiral-field-loops« (Turns, periods) identifies themselves as »elements of the spin« of the Quantum Physics. Thereto wrote Erwin Schrödinger:  "After this opinion the matter is the designation for a contiguous skein of events; which themselves string together after time; at which in general the immediately ensuing parts have tightest similarity each to each other."

To this I insert afterwards an picture with the informative title "Light Can Twist as Well as Spin" (2003 November 19) from that one "Astronomy Picture of The Day Archive" of the NASA (http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap031119.html), how astronomers imagine a beam:

    photontwist_ug(Light Can Twist as Well as Spin)2

Contradictions of physicsContinuum and discontinuum pass for irresolvable contradictions. This ill-fated error maneuvered the "mother of all sciences" into the dead-end street of torn nature conception. Thereto Louis-Victor de Broglie:  "The basis idea of the quantum theory is presumably the impossibility, to consider an isolated energy piece; without to associate a certain frequency to this." Against it stands, however, that spiral quantum-skein bring both compatibly together. Quantum-skein is continuous in it and has no incisions or markers [Fig. 3]. Its windings (Loops) are, however, countable like the windings in electrical coils and the energy distributes itself uniformly on the skein as a whole.

Light vectorIf the transversal electromagnetic vector c with its foot-point does run along the idealized ray of light of the linear optics and gyrates round the light ray, its top writes a spiral into the space. Idealized ray and spiral curve are only thought, but the Spiral-Field-Model does go further and equips the top of the vector with field. That derives the screw field, which generates the nature.

Integration in the Universe Newton saw in his light-corpuscles independent objects. But the quanta of action are all-round integrated into the universe:  On the one hand as a row link in the quantum-skein and on the other hand through its field sleeve around itself. The field strength becomes - as at all known fields - smaller 1/r 2 to the outside (Sometimes named as 1/2-law). Every field-loop in every quantum-skein is source of field which reaches until into the endlessness.

Wave-particle-dualismThrough its own rotation is quantum-skein a wave. Additional I mention the oscillation (Vibration) definition for a wave:  Every cyclic repetition of an event or process is an oscillation: Ergo also the constant rotation. Through its finite length and its concentration around the idealized light ray of the linear optics is quantum-skein a corpuscle. The length of the quantum-skeins is from very short, to astronomical long. Their side field expands indeed to the infinity, restricts, however, its individual influence to very short distance. In tall distance get the General Field this part. In 1996 Sidney Perkowitz brought to expression:  "Photons belong to the elementary particles whose compound the universe formed from … the introduction of the photon, the quantum particle of the light, has brought the insight that the light can be in a not conceivable way at the same time a particle and a wave." At this time had become solved the wave-particle-dualism through my work in a absolutely conceivable way.
Electro-magnetic wave-packetsWhat actually electro-magnetic wave packets which were created in the Quantum Physics above probability functions are can not bring until today anybody satisfactorily to the expression. Therefore the complex wave-function y  got a mystic flavor. In 1933 Schrödinger had emphasized this fact in his Nobel-lecture and regretted not to know the deeper cause:  "In the particle-picture and also in the wave-picture is truth value, that we must not leave; merely about the coalescence to a single concrete, obvious picture are the opinions so very much divided that many does hold this for impossible anyway. I will outline the   c o n n e c t i o n   now terse. But don't reckon with it that such an uniform concrete picture arises for you from it; and do not shift it either onto my clumsiness it to represent or onto their own obtuse, that that will not succeed - because nobody succeeded up to now yet in it." In the middle of the eighties I had presented after Spiral Field Model a method, as wave packets can be graphically illustrated; and since this time:  I demonstrate how swing quantum-skeins transversally (Crossways). All rotation-planes are always exactly crossways in relationship to the wave-normal [Fig. 4] whether on even (Straight) or bent (Curved) path (Quantum path).
Quantum rotationThe infinitesimal calculus subdivides all courses of nature events and processes in the Classic Physics into infinitely small steps. With something of right the quantum physicists practice criticism on the Classic Physics with regard to the division of effect (Effect capability) and energy to infinite little steps and refer thereto to the quanta of action h from Planck. In first reading they were right. In second reading, however, not, because the quanta of action as a mono-rotation are not the smallest subset of the effect [Fig. 5]. Every rotation can be thought to subdivide in infinite-many infinite-small angle-steps. That reveals why the infinitesimal calculus are in general whatever suitable as a calculus method for the Quantum Physics; and a modified algebra that don't make better.
Calculating in the complex oneThe nature processes fulfill themselves in the General Field (Faraday, Maxwell). If one acknowledges a spiral structure of the matter, harmonious functions are self-evident for the calculation. Finally are sine- and cosine-curves not anything other than in geometric plane projected space-spirals. Therefore the wave-mechanics of Schrödinger had proved so glossy.
Only it can be not allowed therefore to waive, that with the intermediate projection of space spirals in auxiliary planes certain natural qualities get lost and every later recursion remains incomplete. Thereby get lost particularly rotation direction and time-line. I spare myself the investigation, which devastating errors arise through such loss of information.
Field deformation and elasticity The first American Nobel Prize winner Albert A. Michelson (1907) had scrutinized the light-transport with regard to inertness and elasticity; and he came to the conclusion that no weighable medium (Steel … hydrogen gas) can transfer oscillations with the speed of the light. According to my opinion only the General Field has a sufficient small inertia and sufficient high elasticity for that. Wave-packets store their energy  analogous to the deformation in the elastic region from mechanics and electrics (Technique Sciences) - after laws of the elasticity in the spiral field deformation. In the quantum-skein that is: per quantum (Mono-rotation, loop, period) exactly one “quantum of action” h (Planck constant).
We can not register any single full quantum of action even with our coarse measuring equipment; but the nature prepares the corresponding infinite small effect-amount
(Infinitesimal dS) and energy-amount (Infinitesimal dE) to every infinite small angle-step (Infinitesimal dφ) of every mono-rotation, whose height corresponds with the curvature of the spiral curve. Thereto the right speculation of de Broglie:  "The corpuscle preserves his energy as an explosive filled projectile."
Energy transport with wave-packets If electro-magnetic wave-packets with their spiral field-deformation does transport energy [J = Joule] is valid the following relationship:  E = h· n/t [J]. One can read off easy the energy amount which the physical matter has absorbed from a mono-ray.
Poincaré and Max von Laue asked:  Where is the radiation energy, if already emitted, but not again absorbed? It is storing in the spiral-field-deformation. This corresponds with the fact that the photon energy goes up if the frequency does increase.
Radiation phenomena Through a consistent idealization of the quantum-skein with its rotating spiral-field-loops; a sure basis emerges in order to supplement backgrounds of the versatile radiation phenomena beyond the known knowledge. The quantum-skeins appear in different figures, if one looks from different sides. Crossways they project the sine-curve as a broadly known oscillation synonym. In a transverse cut shows quantum-skein, however, a circle and circular rings with equidistants of the same field strength. That is largely unknown.
Concentration of radiation energyAll wave packets do move during their rotation along the idealized light ray. Therefore the radiation energy keeps - despite partly gigantic distances - concentrated around a central line; and it disappears not against zero in the cosmic space on bigger and bigger nascent spherical shells; how that would have to happen after the oscillation theory.
That has together a patchy
(Blotchy) wave front as result [Fig. 6] on which Planck already referred. Without spotted wave front there could be no image systems.

Special interference The Spiral-Field-Theory has in contradiction to Paul A. M. Dirac no problems with the interference of equal photons from different sources. On the other hand the Spiral-Field-Model is able to illustrate a manner how photons after the postulate of Dirac indeed »with itself interfere«.

Variable wave speed I confirm that photons (Electro-magnetic wave-packets or quantum-skeins) always move »with speed of light«. That does not mean, however, an invariant velocity of the quantum-skeins in the Spiral-Field-Model. All do with every single rotation (Mono-rotation) a way which we term wavelength. The speed of light c is constant in the vacuum. On that is based the definition of the length unit meter. From 1960 the measurement procedure was directly formulated as certain number of wavelengths. Since 1983 the route is regarded now as meters which the light overcomes in 1/299792458 seconds in the vacuum.

Speed and topologically field strengthIn comparison to the standard-speed c vacuum the speed of light become slower in a space with weighable media; because of higher density and field strength. That describes the law of Willebrord Snellius, who plays a great role in the mineralogy and the optics. An arbitrary in particular considered mono-ray (Quantum-skein, wave-packet) is mono-chromatic and does not change its speed about the frequency. Its wave speed varies through the covered distance per rotation. According to the Spiral Field Model the wavelength becomes longer or shorter through the field strength of the crossed space. That has serious consequences not only for the speed of the wave-packets, but also for their topological size.
Singularity of the vacuumIn opposite to this the speed of electro-magnetic waves increase itself:  in a space where the field strength fades away, far away from galaxies. It overcomes in the case of the same frequency bigger way sections. Provided that that is correct, then is the validity of a constant c vacuum restricted on the proximity of the earth. Therefore it would have to receive the addition »in the planetary system of the sun
« (Maybe c is already in the external solar system minimally higher?).
With extremely falling field strength the speed of electro-magnetic waves tends against a cosmic singularity without energy. That explains the paradox of the dark night sky which has discovered Heinrich W. M. Olbers. However, this relativizes also contemplations over size and ages of the universe with its galaxies; and it tosses up the question, whether we can give such answers meaningful? I think that present size and age data apply only to our galaxy.
Singularity of the compressionIn exotic cosmic objects of highest density the speed of electro-magnetic waves reduces itself still much more than in weighable media. Such areas run up to a cosmic singularity with highest energy and smallest volume; as that presupposes the hypothesis of the "big bang" correctly. About it expressed Einstein:  "Is not caused the being of such singularity through our introducing of the matter as a kind of dust: which does not offer any resistance against a compression?" In the Spiral Field Model those as spiral-moved identified quantum-skeins does offer resistance against a compression into a mathematical point without space-time-dimension. They force to their locomotion. That does indicate an inversion condition which is hidden to us. The rare Supernovae are the phenomena matching that. With the radiation outbreak will begin then a new development phase in this cosmic object (Multi World Theory, Ludwig Boltzmann).
Particle from free radiationContent of physics is on the one hand radiation; and on the other hand the already existing particles for bodies. Content of Spiral-Field-Model is exclusively radiation. It uses the postulates of Niels Henrik David Bohr in order to generate particles as »stationary conditions of matter
«. That does happen exactly then:  If the top (Nose) of a quantum-skein - which is radically bent through extreme field - will reach the end (Tail); and comes together phase-exact to a »ring process« (Circle-process). Serious physics textbooks assess fields in the interior of particles up to 1040 times more strongly than all other fields. Therefore I am confident that such curvature is possible. Similar one might be valid for the interior of exotic cosmic objects.
De Broglie derived the wave nature of local matter pure theoretical. The diffraction of electron rays in the crystal lattice verifies this. Particles are, however, not only abstractly a wave
(Table of the DeBroglie-Formel). They consist in their fine structure from quantum-skein which sure must bend extremely, but it does remain radiation in the interior of the genuine particles. Quantum-skein does keep the specific qualities from every radiation if it »circulates in them
«. Therefore originates not an energy loss through mechanical friction and also not through electrically loaded electrons on curved path. Also the relative stability of particles has its basis in the endless rotation of the quantum-skein. With that is also solved the riddle around the duality of wave and particles for genuine particles. Primary originate only radiation with corpuscular character (Light-corpuscles). Then in a second way - under certain conditions - originate genuine particles which put together the bodies.

Force for whole quantum numbersThereto Planck:  "If an electron path walks back in itself namely, is clear so, that it always must include exactly a whole number of wavelengths, as well like the length of a chain closed to a complete ring, that consists of nothing but equally-long limbs. - The cycle of an electron resembles after it … the turn of an all-round symmetrical ring in itself." Integer quantum numbers are the result of phase-exact for a ring process of joined quantum-skeins; therefore »seedless particles« and stationary conditions in the sense of Planck and Bohr round the atom.
If however, an ultra-short time shield cuts pieces from a skein
(Quantum-skein, photon bundle, laser ray), whole numbers of the rotating spiral-field-loops emerge only as an exception; these problems apart, the fractions from Planck's quantum of action will probably never be perceptible and are hardly anywhere relevant.
Field strength and fine structure:  If locally various are gigantic field strengths in the interior of the particles (Electron shell, atomic nucleus), then exists a fine structure of the effective field strength. This has to consequence that wave-packets vary its speed uninterrupted in ultra-short time intervals at the passageway through local matter.
Ring process electronThe term "electron" has in the physics many facets. The Spiral-Field-Model defines a difference between two groups of electrons. Firstly:  ring processes in the cover of atoms and molecules and secondly:  particles without atomic nucleus, that are:  seedless particles and objects of the atom nucleus. The significant difference is in the size and in the energy. Ring processes of the electron shell have a diameter by 10-10 m, seedless particles by 10-15…10-18 m and smaller. The energy of orbital electrons (Shell electrons) is in the area of visible light, those of seedless particles in x-ray area.
Micro gyroEvery of Bohr's stationary conditions in the interior of the electron shell; every of the self processes of the Quantum Physics; every quantum-skein-rings which rotate in itself; every seedless particles or as always one may term such a structure, are "micro gyros" and have similar qualities like macro gyros; which was investigated thoroughly through the Technique Sciences. Who wants to lead back the gyro qualities in real particles, however, on the »spin« alone (The described rotation of quantum-skein around the idealized light-ray), is mistaken according to my opinion. The typical resistance of gyros against changes of the posture has its cause in:  rotation of a all-round symmetrical ring in itself after Planck [Fig. 7].
evertheless no particular knowledge about the complicated questions of the nuclear technology I had gotten; I think that this movement principle is valid but with extremely reduced size also for the atomic nucleus; also space-saving as a knot
[Fig. 8].
Absorption and Emission Each quantum-skein will be absorbed, that comes from precisely suitable direction into a matching vacant orbit of a particle symbiosis (Molecule / atom / atomic nucleus). Then this quantum-skein forms one of the many stationary ring processes in the particle system. The micro procedure of a finally caught ray shows similarity to the cosmic »black hole«. So seeing, our skin molecules have many »mini black-holes« if we lie in the sun. Absorptions cause a vibration of the skin molecules, and that signifies warming. Analog I postulate:  Theoretically can radioactive atoms regenerate in a space with very hard x-radiation through absorption of x-ray-skeins.

An emission happens if an outer or inner disturbance is breaking a ring process (For example through photoelectric effect). Then a single quantum-skein will beam out in defined direction as a tiny lightning. Strong disturbances break asunder many ring processes in the electron shell or / and in the atom nucleus simultaneously (Mechanical friction, nuclear disintegration). Seedless particles, which consist from one mono-ring-process, decay completely.
Actually Einstein had demanded these explanations already from Heisenberg: "You will have to say one day what the nature does if quanta jump!" That is herewith answered. In the Spiral-Field-Model exists in principle no difference between weighable
(Ponderable) and not weighable (Imponderable) matter. All bodily matter and all real particles:  Are local circling radiation.
Self organizationHeisenberg sought over atoms and energy out:  "… working of different forms, to which there is probably nothing corresponding under the mathematical shapes of the present-day nuclear physics … if one wants to describe alive or mental processes." I see the "different forms" divined by Heisenberg:  in the interpreted emission and absorption of quantum-skeins, whose spiral-field-loops are countable in principle. This exchange of quantum-skeins enables on the one hand the universe to put its variety in concrete reality. On the other hand is the exchange of quantum-skeins useful to convey and to store information; and consequently a self organization to initiate. For each of us the filigrees exchange of quantum-skeins has enormous meaning for the basis in chemistry, biology, medicine and especially for the research at central systems and genes. This cognition can be used also for technical purposes in the information technique and cybernetics of course. Who takes this general connection with his interior can explain many not understood phenomena with the physics. In the framework of the solution of principle problems, I cannot widen over it. What I sketch should show possibilities for various other areas.
Charge of genuine particlesThe present physics does handle charges empirically. I offer a hypothesis for originating of charge:  Toroid-shaped particles come into being through surrounding themselves with spiral rotating quantum-skein. The center of such a tiny dynamic object can be no stationary Euclidean space. Symmetrical or complicated molded, unending processes does on the basis of the own rotation (Self rotation) in the quantum-skein (Spin) transport of abstract-space into its center, and on the opposite side out [Fig. 7, above]. That is until now a not considered possibility as charges originate. The hypothesis corresponds to the experience that no elementary mono charges (Mono-plus / mono-minus) exist.
Particle behavior On the same level I judge the behavior of ring processes with each other. Ring processes can itself push off, or they can itself attract low; and they generate thereby electron-lines (Electric current) as well as atom and molecule rows. However, they can also itself attract extremely strong and become a basis for neutrality (Neutrons, neutrinos). On this basis, I understand Wolfgang Pauli's exclusion principle. I illustrate this in shorthand with an ET-sign @ from André Marie Ampère:   – –; … –@–@–@–@–@ …; @@ [Fig. 9].
Particle symbiosisThe nano-physics must be able to include processes from the interior of the atom, and has, however, big problems with it. All atom types are a certain variety from ring processes. Number, type and tumultuous movement of the ring processes correspond to specific attributes in the periodic system of the chemical elements. Either, ring-process-wads form a stable symbiosis (For example the proton with >1030 years of half-life period); or they disturb itself in the interior and disintegrate after a longer or shorter time interval; or they exist at all only fractions of seconds (Resonances).
Energy increase and quantum objectsQuantum objects that squirm increasingly narrowly has always smaller spiral-radius and require always less topological space. Therefore ring-processes with higher energy are near the atomic nucleus; and get not more distance through energy increase, as this is still represented with reference to Bohr's atom model sometimes.
This answers also the question, why atom nuclei and free electrons
(Seedless particles) are so small. They are exactly because its high energy content so extremely small.
GravitationThe gravitation field is the combination from all long-distance effects of all quanta (Spiral-field-loops) of all quantum-skeins in all ring-processes that belongs to the macroscopic body. Each loop of all ring processes is a source of gravitation. These field shares itself overlap vectorial after superposition law of Newton (Lex quarta). Self-explanatory the degree of the gravitation depends directly from the number of the included spiral-field-loops; and its average distance to the measuring point. The number of the spiral-field-loops is big already in seedless particles. The number of loops does significantly increase with the many ring processes in atoms and molecules. It is even larger in bodies of our environment with their immense number of atoms. At celestial bodies this number grows into the immeasurable. Therewith the quantity of quanta does change incessant through absorption and emission.
Furthermore fieldsDetails and connection of adhesion, cohesion, electrical field and magnet field are well examined. About the interior of the atoms one researches intensively. Always one should remember that all fields go back to the General Field. New things can be expected from the Spiral Field Model through strict consideration of the asymmetrical shape and the directional character of the quantum-skeins.
Continuum of the Classic PhysicsOutside macroscopic bodies, the gravitation field does show no discontinuities because the tiny separate influences of the quanta does overlap already in very short distance of the body surface with the General Field. Therefore the mechanical laws after Newton become not anymore times theoretical restricted through the micro physics. A quantum-similar discontinuity - as it is expected in form of "gravitons" - can't appear consequently.

Actio = reactio:  Also Newton's reaction principle - of course in other form - exists in the Spiral-Field-Model. No quantum-skein can start; without it starts mirror-symmetrical another quantum-skein in the opposite direction with reverse rotation-direction.

Dark matterThe Spiral-Field-Model gives an argument for the so-called "dark matter". Radiation of all frequencies runs incessant chaotic through all regions of the cosmos. Each of its quantum-skeins is enveloped from field - which with as solitary low influence and be waning with 1/r2-law -; however, has through its immense quantity an important gravitation contribution. This may be to appraise about the theoretical lacking of the gravitation shares. Under the new points of view the wandering around radiation becomes effective and recognizable exclusively in direct track direction (Quantum path) between sensor and source. The under way situated wave-packets, i.e. the "virtual" (Idle) photons in the vacuum, neither in principle can not be perceived from distance in the side view through our eyes; nor can it be seized by technical sensors in this way.
Incessant movement and wholeness The universal Spiral-Field-Theory interprets logical:  which we all know and experience. The matter is moving and changing continuously and everywhere (Heraklit). At the same time all existing things are each with each other in various ways in connection (Parmenides' undivided being, wholeness of the cosmos). But the Spiral-Field-Model declares this not only passively, but is capable in detail to deduce and to demonstrate:  how the findings in principle happen.
Adequate Spiral-Field-Mathematics:  Einstein and Heisenberg complained in view of their tasks about the development level of the mathematical methods. I divide this opinion with view to my ideas about a Spiral Field Mathematics although I lack however extensive information. I miss a mathematics which can calculate the real field-dynamics in the interior of the particles (Seedless particles, atom nuclei, atoms, molecules); and it would be desirable, if exists something to it already. In each case the rotations does cause in the interior of particles and atom nuclei on short distance that the neighboring quantum-skein-rings do influence themselves each the other through their lateral field sleeves.
World formulaOur world swings in most various way:  On the one hand in the usual one back and forth from tuning-fork, pendulums, earthquakesalso longitudinal oscillations in the sound, however, partially just even through mere rotations of the electromagnetic waves. Oscillations make our life whatever possible. They help us at many activities. They could not be imagined away from chemistry, biology and medicine. They gladden us in the art, but they can also disturb us very much; and they sometimes bring death and ruin. Oscillations are reaching from the microcosm over our bodies, our nearer and further surroundings as far as to the most distant galaxies. Under these points of view is unintelligible for me, what expect the contemporary physics from a further »world formula«? The world formula for oscillations is to read in Bohr's postulates:  h· n = E;  and enhances on the basis of the insight through the Spiral Field Theory:  E = h· n/t.
Berlin, June 2005 / revised Mai 2006 and September 2010
Dipl. - Ing. Udo A. J. Hartje 

(Figures and Notes are to see in ISBN 978-3-9806131-6-3)

)*  M. j. Padgett, j. Leach (U. Glasgow) Et Al., Royal Society: Explanation: Light is more complicated than we thought. When astronomers measure light, they are usually concerned with its direction, energy, and spin polarization (sometimes). Recently, however, it has been more broadly realized that photons can also have orbital angular momentum (OAM), an attribute classically analogous to the Earth orbiting the Sun as well as spinning on its axis. Pictured above, the wave-front of a photon with OAM is shown to be twisted, in contrast to the flat plane of zero OAM light. Light with OAM might be used to increase the information content of communication or to discern specific types of astronomical sources. Passing through a common lens, light without OAM focuses to a point, whereas light with OAM focuses to a ring. Most light bouncing around the cosmos, however, is expected to have so little (or zero) OAM that the created ring is too small to measure. Even given other promising methods for measurement, exploiting OAM for astronomical discovery might be as much an issue of observational practicality as theoretical possibility.
(A part of emphasis by underlining is not from the original, however, but the statement with additional underlining confirms: Photons are rotary fields!)

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